James Gibbs received the MD degree from the Medical College, Medical University of South Carolina in 1964. While attending medical school, he participated in surgical research, including a research externship at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston with organ transplant pioneer and Nobel Laureate Joseph Murray, MD. Following a year of residency training in General Surgery at the University of Michigan Hospital, Dr. Gibbs volunteered for duty with the US Army Special Forces, serving two years (1965-1967) abroad as a General Medical Officer. He then completed a residency in Psychiatry at The Payne Whitney Clinics, The New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Cornell Medical Center in New York City. Once again, throughout advanced medical training, he conducted basic research, this time in the behavioral neuroscience of motivated behavior.